Management and Leadership
While leadership has been studied since the time of the ancient Greeks, the idea of management is relatively new, having been created during the industrial revolution. Still, for many years, both were seen as similar. It wasn’t until the 1970’s that academics began to see the concepts as different. John Kotter in the early 90’s made the strongest argument to separate the two. Kotter believed that management is designed to provide order and structure to an organization while leadership is the practice of moving forward and producing a change in an organization (Kotter, 1990). Thus, managers focused on the present and leaders focused on the future.
However, even Kotter recognized that organizations need both management AND leadership. Current scholars in the field realized that organizations need both, managers need to know how to lead and leaders need to know how to manage. Looking at the current job market, Gleeson (2017) suggested that both management and leadership are necessary for a fast-moving economy. He found that 21st-century companies are changing and leadership responsibilities are increasingly being delegated to all levels of management. Right Management (2015) surveyed 100 HR managers and 500 line managers in companies with over 500 employees and found that the two most important skills they wanted to develop in their employees were leadership and management.
Leadership researchers Azad et al. (2017) found that leading and managing require many of the same skills and are necessary to drive organizational success. They provided the following example:
A leader (e.g., a school dean) who has the vision and plans for the school is ineffective if she cannot use the managerial skills to procure and efficiently allocate the resources to accomplish the vision. Conversely, a manager (e.g., department chair) who can efficiently allocate resources is ineffective if she has no vision or sense of direction for how those resources should be utilized (Azad et al., 2017, p. 2).
Clearly, to function in the fast-paced business environment we live in now, both skills are needed.
The New Master of Science in Management and Leadership
In response to the current needs of organizations, CityU has changed our master’s program in leadership to a new Master of Science in Management and Leadership. The program curriculum will incorporate practical applications where students apply data driven-decision making, analytical techniques of management, and organizational leadership best practices to help them:
- effectively make decisions;
- build high-performing teams;
- confidently self-manage;
- lead organizations to execute strategic plans;
- stand out for promotions within their organizations.
The program has three emphases students can choose:
- Change Leadership
- Human Resource Management
- Nonprofit Leadership
Azad, N., Anderson, H. G., Brooks, A., Garza, O., O’Neil, C., Stutz, M. M. & Sobotka, J. L. (2017). Leadership and management are one and the same. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(6), 1-5.
Gleeson, B. (2017). The future of leadership and management in the 21st-century. Forbes. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2017/03/27/the-future-of-leadership-and-management-in-the-21st-century-organization/#9fe92218ff41
Kotter, J. P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York, NY: Free Press.
Right Management. (2015). The flux report. Retrieved from: http://www.rightmanagement.co.uk/wps/wcm/connect/right-uk-en/home/thoughtwire/categories/thought-leadership/The+Flux+Report+-+Building+a+resilient+workforce+in+the+face+of+flux